Why Barotseland did not have separate independence from Northern Rhodesia

Filed under: Statements |

By 1963 the territory of Barotseland protectorate which is now called Western Province in Zambia, was administered jointly, with Northern Rhodesia protectorate by, and for British convenience for various economic and political reasons, in which case a protectorate within another protectorate occurred. Barotseland’s quest for independence was on record since 1911. It was inevitable that  both nations would be free, the question was when and how so, two free and separate states named Zambia and Barotseland or one Zambia one nation. Through the BA64 one Zambia and one nation would prevail.

As nationalism mounted pressure on the British colonial government in the 1960s, independence became a reality. Prime Minister David Kenneth Kaunda was well advised to lobby the support of Barotseland even though the BRE had long withdrawn from some parts of southern province, Caprivi Strip of Namibia, Eastern Angola, Victoria falls of Zimbabwe, Kasane of Botswana, NW Province, Central province and Copper-belt province. According to honorable Sikota Wina, this was a smart move in that it helped the newly formed government of Zambia reclaim the mining rights of copper-belt from the BSAC which would have continued for 99 years since the Lockner treaties with Lewanika signed in the late 1800s. “Mr. Wina said the treaties provided that the Lozi King Lewanika had been granted protectorate status by Britain through the Lochner Concession of June 1890, in return for giving Cecil Rhodes’ BSAC monopoly over mining and commercial rights in his territory. He said this monopoly could have been earning BSAC fat royalties up to 1986.” (Kasuba Mulenga Report, 2010)

Barotseland was not really obliged to be independent along with Northern Rhodesia. In fact it was the desire of the BRE to be independent as Barotseland, but the British at the time thought Barotseland had no sufficient economy and industrial capacity to stand alone without copper-belt. In order for the two separate nations to be awarded independence by the British, however, it would require a special agreement to replace Lewanika’s old treaties and concessions. The BA64 became that agreement. With that vehicle in place, and only then did the British feel comfortable to surrender Barotseland into the hands of a new form of government, also expected to continue facilitating Barotseland with her autonomy within Zambia to be, this time a nation within a nation, as was the case with a protectorate within a protectorate. KK assured the Litunga and the people of Barotseland to trust him and never to worry as this arrangement was not new.

Dr. Kenneth Kaunda, then Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia later addressed the Barotse National Council on 6th August 1964 concerning the Barotseland Agreement which was to come into force on 24th October 1964.

“….It is the government’s full intention that the Barotseland Agreement will be honored fully after    independence…. The government has no wish to interfere with the day to day running of the internal affairs of Barotseland. This is the responsibility of the Barotse government and the intention of the Central Government will be no more than to give the Barotse Government its maximum assistance and co-operation. …The customary rights in Barotseland will remain with the Litunga, National Council and the District heads of Kutas. He added that “the government is satisfied that government requirements for land for development projects in Barotseland will receive the active co-operation of the Barotse government, this is all the Central Government is asking for…..”  (Nyambe, 2010)

Despite this assurance from KK the Litunga did not believe that KK was sincere. As a result the BNC wrote an appeal to the British government requesting to have separate independence, of which the British government was reluctant to do as it would cost them more money to deliver. Thus, encouraging Barotseland to make a deal with Northern Rhodesia was perceived cheaper for the British government, beneficial to Northern Rhodesia as it would close the copper-belt mining ownership rights issue once and for all, and would also leave Barotseland attached to Zambia like Zanzibar with Tanzania, or arrange to be like Lesotho and Swaziland in South Africa.

Through the efforts and influence of the Lozi elite such as Arthur Wina, Mundia Nalumino, Sipalo and others, the message of one Zambia one nation was preached as gospel truth and salvation for Barotseland and her future development. Hence many people voted for one Zambia one nation in the infamous referendum that followed later. Even though today some reliable sources allege that the elections were rigid forcing Barotseland to become part of Zambia. Whatever the case was, it was accepted and we gladly became Zambians. Soon after independence KK and his government sort to abrogate the BA64 in 1969 fulfilling the Litunga, Mwanawina Lewanika’s fears. When the local people in Barotseland protested KK declared state of emergency and arrested several activists without trial. Since KK’s time every effort to address the BA64 has met with manipulation, indifference, threats even killings by successive governments respectively. The BA64 has never been handled properly. People on blogs insult each other for nothing. Only Love, Peace and Respect for each other will help aide the process for resolving this impasse. It is now more than 47 years since Zambia became independent, but development in Barotseland is still a dream not yet fulfilled. How long will the people of Barotseland wait for the promise of development to come? Does the government understand how important Mongu/Kalabo road is to the people of Barotseland, politics aside?  Are the people of Barotseland asking too much?

Litunga Mwanawina Lewanika

The people of Barotseland now hope that the government of President Michael Sata which they voted in trust, which has so far demonstrated civility, consideration and willingness to dialogue, will bring this matter to a peaceful conclusion through the commission of inquiry. The whole world is watching to see how Zambian presidents keep their promises. The abrogation of the BA64 is the first born of Zambian corruption. The International community will respect Mr. Sata even more should he be transparent on this issue, unlike his predecessors. On the other hand, if KK who is still alive could advise Mr. Sata and the nation to do the right thing, KK would die with great honor.

Godwin M Kaluwe

President:  Barotseland Peace Foundation

Comments Closed

129 Responses to Why Barotseland did not have separate independence from Northern Rhodesia

  1. #konayuma and mbundi Chuma, you are both Lozis, do not lie to anyone. Tongas are the ones who call victorial falls Shungu namutitima, even your spelling of namutitima is wrong because you like duping and connecting yourselves where you do not belong, and even justfying your false claims to suit your mischief. Tokas call smoke Musi alot is busi, that smoke at victorial falls does not thunder but shoots, water is the one that thunder, so your claims are false. Lozis we know you like connecting yourselves in terms of name similarity, even a lubinda in southern province or central for you he is Lozi, but Lubinda in tonga and lenje language is rushing meaning kubinda. there are Mumbas in Eastern and northern, but you never hear bembas saying whoever is named Mumba is Bemba, they will ask you where you come from. For lozis even if Kaufela means something in Shona or Ndebele, once you hear one pronouncing that word, you say he is Lozi and we can together form barotseland. lozis we know you very well, we do not need justification and explanations from anyone. You need barotseland just to selfishness, just to benefit the Luyanas who are lazy and just want to be kings and chiefs. Who do you think you can fool around?

    Tumbwe - January 10, 2012
    21:49

  2. Tumbwe

    Please stop hallucinating. Barotseland had a High School built in the 1930s. It was called the Barotse National School. This is the school that produced Zambia’s first Black Medical doctor, Dr Konoso. Dr Konoso was the only qualified black medical doctor at the time of independence..

    University graduates like Nalumino Mundia, Kopano Mushashu, Munu Sipalo, Arthur Wina etc all went through this school. Over a third if not a quarter of all the 120 university graduates at the time of independence were Lozis.

    In 1969 when Kaunda abrogated Barotse Agreement; he proceeded to expunge the term Barotse from use. Out went Barotseland and in came Western Province. Out went Barotse National School and in came Kambule secondary. Out went Church of Barotseland (Keleke Ya Bulozi) and in came United Church of Zambia.

    Honestly some of you are just making fools of yourselves. If you dont know anything it is better to keep quite than make ignorant assertions!

    Mbundi Chuma - January 10, 2012
    21:28

  3. Kanguya

    Munyukuku is a Mbunda term for a Foreigner. There is nothing wrong with this. Germans and Americans refer to Foreigners as Aliens. Bembas refer to foreigners as Bamwisa. In South Africa and Botswana foreigners are known as Maqwereqwere. Kanguya you are just a picky little rascal.

    Mung’ete is Luyi term for an uncultured person. It can be used both to describe a native (Lozi) or a foreigner.

    Lozis have always been comfortable with foreigners. After all; they are a mixture of tribes. Scroll down and you will learn that there are ndebeles and Kalangas in their midst.

    Thanx to Konayuma…..he has told you what Toka Leyas call the Victoria Falls. I hope you will shut up.

    Mbundi Chuma - January 10, 2012
    21:13

  4. Kanguya,

    Chief Mukuni, Chief Moomba, Chief ndunga are in Southern and Northwestern Provinces. Are you such a dull chap that you cannot follow simple arguments.

    You’ve already been told that Barotseland Protectorate is confined to what is now called Western Province. So it is idiot.ic of you to continue pushing a mute if not st.upi.d point in light of what I have already explained to you earlier.

    You know what? I have just realised that you are not just dull but you also have a single digit IQ. Go back to school you monkey.

    Tonga Island is not in Latin (this is the way you spell) America. Tonga Island is in the South Pacific. It is inhabited by Polynesians.

    Stop making st.u.pid assertions that Lozis are claiming what does not belong to them. No you fool. Barotseland Protectorate is what is known as Western Province courtesy of Kaunda’s decision to change the name in 1969. Before 1969 it was known as Barotseland. So you id.io.t st.op raising stu.pi.d arguments.

    Mbundi Chuma - January 10, 2012
    20:57

  5. Kanguya

    I am Toka Leya. We call Victoria Falls as SHUNGA LYA MUTITIMA.

    Mosi oa Tunya is Lozi ie Kololo.

    Kanguya you are just embarrasing yourself with your ignorance.

    Konayuma - January 10, 2012
    20:43

  6. What was the traditional dress of the Lituga before the white man’s ceremonial? Sata to revive that debate would define his down fall. Let sleeping dogs lie.

    Original Zambian - January 10, 2012
    19:51

  7. This is interesting, how can other tribes accept to be ruled by a chief who wears colonial security guard uniform on traditional ceremonies, which just shows that the whole of his clan was colonised to the bone marrow. When other tribes promote their own, him he is proud of a British colonial guard uniform from his colonial masters. We knoe there are no industries in western province, but this is too much colonisation. Although this chief was selling other people’s land, the british never cared about western province because the area is not economically viable. By 1940 the only secondary schools built in zambia were Munali and St. chanicious in Chikuni mission, meaning all these were northern Rhodesia, western province had none.

    Tumbwe - January 10, 2012
    15:30

  8. At times these Lozis think they are smart, but they end up failing because they always want to dupe others. People are watching you, no one will ever accept to be ruled by another person’s chief, Litunga is your chief and no other tribe of person can accept to be ruled by him. In zambia nowadays land is under traditional custody, chiefs own 90% of the land, you can imagine chief Ndungu of north-western province surrendering land in his chiefdom to another chief like litunga of the lozi people, that would be a dream for a centuary. This BA64 is a non starter, it can only happen if that Litunga can just take Limulunga as Barotseland and areas beyond that. This is all selfishness, how can one chief claim to rule other chiefs who are independent with their own land. Chief Mukuni or Moomba cannot pay homage to another chief like Litunga when he is also accorded the same respect in his own land.

    Kanguya - January 10, 2012
    15:23

  9. I am optimistic that Barotseland freedom is arround the corner. For sure President Sata promised to honour the agreement and will at the appropriate time keep his word. Who knows, it may be another “donchi kubeba ” style of doing it. Probably what should preoccupy our minds is how will the place be governed. There is need to put in place specialized committees in various sectors to address key developmental issues

    Maketo Mubyana - January 10, 2012
    15:23

  10. #mbundi chuma, if Lozis have a right to stay in Livingstone and kazungula, why then is it that when other tribes settle in your areas you call them names like Munyukunyuku or Mung’ete?. you Lozis are selfish. Names do not matter, Tokas called victorial falls Musi u tunya even before the coming of david livingstone, and in their language it means shooting smoke. You lozis just because of similarity you started connecting yourselves that it is a lozi name. You Lozis like connecting anything with the names, just because nsengas say nsima and tongas say the same, non of the two tribes can claim to say we were the first ones to eat nsima in zambia. If it were you with your claims, you were going to be claiming Tonga island in latine America that it was Tongas who first settled there. In short if you lozis have a right to settle in other people’s areas, other tribes should have the same rights as well without discrimination. Their chiefs like Luvale, Nkoya etc should also be given the same rights and status like lozi chiefs, they should be gazated as senior chiefs not just indunas.

    Kanguya - January 10, 2012
    15:09

  11. Kamunu Qunu,
    Child of the Sky

    Those are very interesting names. At least I have learnt something. I never knew that there was a Kalanga/Humbe/ Ndebele tribe in Western Province. In the 90s there was a lecturer at UNZA with the name Mbulai and me and my Lozi friends used to argue about whether or not he was indeed Lozi because the name Mbulai does not sound Lozi if you know what I mean.

    Sibeso - January 10, 2012
    14:30

  12. Kanguya;

    Why dont you go to the following people’s villages: Musangu Village, the late Chiluba’s Village, Chatulika village current President Sata’s Village. Compare the three and then talk.

    Milupi has built 16 brick houses each with 3 bedrooms in his village. He has a dairy farm and a ranch of 1000 cross bred cattle in the village. There is nothing you know about Milupi apart from your manufactured nonsense. Charity begins at home and Charles Milupi leads the way.

    By the way which Lozis have claimed Livingstone or Kazungula?. Can you quote or give the source for this information?. Or is this your id.iotic way of denying the fact that there are Lozi villages around Livingstone and in Kazungula? You cannot deny Lozis their right to reside in Livingstone or Kazungula. They have always had homes in these two districts. Even the local name for the Falls is in Silozi/Kololo: Mosi oa Tunya. Barotseland borders are what is today Western Province. The name was changed from Barotseland to Western Province by Kaunda in 1969. So logically Livingstone and Kazungula were never part of Barotseland but Northern Rhodesia.The borders of Barotseland have never been in dispute it is only i.dio.ts like you who like making an issue of settled stuff.

    The two Nkoya chiefs in Kaoma i.e Mwene Mutondo and Mwene Kahare are active members of the Barotse National Council. The bill boards on the enterance to their palaces read: BRE followed by their titles. So this nonsense about Nkoyas only exists in the st.upi.d heads of so called Kanguya and his quite demented side kick going by the name of Kafue Province Advocate. Kafue Province Advocate has been told in no uncertain terms by bloggers from Kasempa, Mumbwa and Itezhi Tezhi to go to hell because their ethnic groups have nothing in common with Nkoyas. And that they are better off where they are!

    kanguya you are a fool! Stop making up st.u.pid stories.

    Mbundi Chuma - January 10, 2012
    14:14

  13. Just listen to yourselves…… Madness. Tell me why is  this Baroste issue is still hanging in the air. Where are the solicitors??????????????? Pathetic!!!!!!!!!!!! For flippin Petes sake sort this OUT!!!! Madness over a document!!! Simple question – is it ligit or not!!!! If it is then give Barotse back. If it’s a load of bull then why is it taking long to sort out!!!!! Are you telling me there are no solicitors who understand the history of how this Barotse agreement came about!!! Pathetic !!!!!!! Progressive dementia!!!!! 

    This is becoming a joke and embarrassing. You mean to tell me this is still dragging on!!!! Crazzzy!!!!

     Best to seek legal advise from other countries who I’m sure can resolve this issue once and for all!!!! Pathetic!!!!! Idiots!!! 

    Same story day in and day out.

    No change of system in government. 
    No change of thinking
    Same mentality in government, just different people
    Claiming to fight corruption when still corrupted
    Same old sh….it

    47 years and what has Zambia to show- shopping malls!!! Lol

    The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poor

    Chinese still benefiting
    Foreigners still exploiting and stealing all our resources and banking their money abroad
    That mulenga Sata allowed to roam the streets to continue to do shady deals. 
    Lubinda and co plotting

    Selfish Zambian political leaders all it to eat from the pie

    Promises promises of bull…… Sh…..it

    There is no credible leader I’m afraid all the same!!!!!!!!!

    They all just talk!!!!!!!!!

    Zambia has a serious problem and Zambia will be going no where at this rate.

    In other words –   No change!!!! 

    Politicians in Zambia are a waste of time!!!

    Disappointed!

    How much has this government benifitted already. How much are they paying themselves…….. ( perks that come with the position……. Think!!!!) If they say they haven’t done any corrupted deals under the table then they are LIARS and if you don’t believe that then you the fools!! Wake up and open your eyes!!!!!

    IDIOTS - January 10, 2012
    03:36

  14. I had no idea how complex this BRE was.and i can easily conclude that it may be the start of of a bitter civil war should they be granted autonomous.all the bloggers don’t even seem to agree on anything.at least i know what i want-i love my love wife and will prefer to stay in Zambia and possibly take her further to eastern province.

    shinkatwa - January 10, 2012
    00:59

  15. Kaluwe,

    Your article is a fraud. There has never been a nation called barotseland in Zambia. It is just an imaginary idea that some BA64 fanatics are trying to force Zambians to believe.

    Before 1964, the colonial government came to know that in Western Zambia, their were principally two Royal Establishments or two Kingdoms, the Lozi royal establishment and the Nkoya Royal establishment, that is why Kaoma was previously known as Nkoya areas (Ma Nkoya) which covered present day Kaoma, Lukulu, Mulobezi, South Kasempa, Kabompo, itezhi itezhi, Kazangula west, etc

    The Litunga’s influence has traditionally been limited to Limulunga and that is the area BA64 was covering. The other areas have always had autonomy from the Litunga.

    The BRE have always thought of themselves as special, superior and have tried to model themselves like the British monarchy and that is what this barotseland project is all about.

    Before 1964, the British had a commissioner specially for Ma Nkoya because it was a different region that was due to be declared a Province when the provincial borders were drawn up.

    Ma Nkoya area as a region had her own status, it was independent to both North East Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia.

    In short, it was a nation that was caught up in the changing events of colonialism and political nationalism against colonial rule.

    However, because the agenda of creating a separate province (Kafue Province) would limit the claim that the BRE would make, they BRE went out of their way to first obstruct the formation of what came to be known as Kafue province in the 1940s.

    It is the reason why many so called lozis want to associate Nkoyas with them so that they can give the illusion that we are one when clearly that is not the case and it has never been.

    The BA64 was just a fraudulent act of trying to make illegal claims over other people’s areas and that is why no sane government can ever honor it.

    To honor the BA64 would be committing a crime even the BRE know this very well that is why there has been no official statement from them BRE or the Litunga himself because the know that it is a non starter.

    KK is a hero for abrogating the BA64 because his government realised that the BRE tried to out smart others but ended up been outsmarted in the end through the abrogation of the BA64.

    The issues of underdevelopment are real in all corners of Zambia and this is the issue every right thinking Zambian should be focusing on.
    Perhaps the most developed, if at all we can even call it that is, Lusaka,CB and Livingstone and to some extent Solwezi the rest is underdeveloped.

    The Mongu – Kalabo road was always a political project rather than an economic necessity. The only viable alternative is to build a road from Mongu via Lukulu to Kalabo and further on into Angola.

    But the only reason the BRE have been asking for a direct road between Mongu and Kalabo is so that they can control the trade route and thus profit from it through taxes and royalties.

    Perhaps the BRE feel that they would not be able to control the trade route if it went via Lukulu because Lukulu happens falls within the boundaries of the proposed Kafue Province.

    The PF government did the right thing to cancel the project because it is costly to the nation and it can’t stand the test of time because of the Zambezi river.

    Kafue Province Advocate - January 9, 2012
    23:17

  16. Actually, it is lozis who will suffer in a case of separation, these people have nothing apart from being economic refugees in other provinces or other prople’s land. I can imagine now they are flocking to our north-western province, just imagine the population in Livingstone, Mazabuka and copperbelt, what can make all these leave our developed areas to go to the most imperverished western province which is economically on zero, no industry at all. Their own people like Milupi no matter how much money they can have, will never invest in their western province, and these are the same calling for seperation. Lozis actually, it is you who are benefiting much in the one zambia one nation, because you are flooding in our areas. Lusaka-west farm area is flooding with lozi farm labourers who ran away from poverty in western province.

    kanguya - January 9, 2012
    20:46

  17. #Kaluwe, from your analysis, you said some parts of other people’s areas, what do you mean?. This is what we do not want, thats why this Barotse issue will never be fulfilled because some of you lozis you do not know where your boundaries are, you keep claiming other people’s land like Livingstone, Kazungula etc in southern province. Learn to teach your people where your boundaries are, which is the main issue making this your BA64 fail. Nkoyas also do not want to be ruled by you Lozis, including mbundas. If you want equality treat all chiefs in Barotseland or give all those chiefs who qualify for senior chiefs that status the way it is in other provinces. If you want this Barotseland, leave those who are not for the idea, and just concentrate only in your boundaries of Mongu, you cannot force people to belong to you or be ruled by a certain tribe.

    kanguya - January 9, 2012
    20:19

  18. Kaunda is the main culprit in this whole matter of BA. He should clarify his part otherwise he will go to the other side with buggage. Bo Kaunda, buhata ni busholi bumaswe.

    Mwina situlo - January 9, 2012
    19:03

  19. You are jokers, your so called chief claimed land which did not belong to Lozis and you say “you will fight” kwakufwila mufwaya. Even diologue is not needed and we are ready for you. Sttupid.

    stipid - January 9, 2012
    18:50

  20. What exactly are the demands of the people of Barotseland? Clearly state them
    W
    1. Economic
    2. Social
    3. Political
    4. Legal
    5. Limitation delimitation

    inquizitiv - January 9, 2012
    18:29

  21. @MPOMBO BOMBARSTIC

    How did you give yourself such a Lamba-like blog handle?!

    @STELLA

    Of course you are wrong. Kwandi, Nyengo, Mbowe etc are the original Luyana dialects. Most Lozis can no longer speak the Luyana dialects. Mbundas have been in Barotseland for close to 200 years and for all intents and purposes are Lozi. They definitely will die the same death as Lozi’s if Sata uses his “stronger position” against Malozi. Silozi is indeed a lingua franca but its ownership is claimed by the original Luyana dialects who dominate and still dominate the area. Lozi culture is very tolerant and seeks to take the best from every source, whether Mbunda, Mahumbe, Nkoya, English etc. Friends and associates to Lozis have always been protected against outsiders since the Luyana kingdom started. We have to be united and not divisive internally. Those who seek to annihilate our culture and language are our common enemy.

    Chief Turd - January 9, 2012
    17:36

  22. Chief Turd
    Agreed the Luyana dialscts and tribal names envolved according to location and practices as you elaborate. If we mean Lozi as defining a nation state of Barotseland in its diversity, and in relation to, and distinction from, other Zambian tribes yes you can define it as a tribe encompassing the 38 tribes). As a language it is Kololo/ Sotho.
    As for Nkoya, perhaps we should look closely at the similarity of many Luyana (not Silozi) words to the Nkoya words. This could be a key to understanding the Nkoya – Luyana common matrix.

    Child of the Sky - January 9, 2012
    17:35

  23. Kamunu Qunu
    Argreed. No controvesy of real substance. Where I come from, Mahumbe and Matebele are terms used interchangeably. I recognise many of the names you mention. Mahumbe/ Matebele villages are dotted all over Luena flats, Senanga and parts of Lukulu. Ezamples are Simakela, Mazeka, Litoma, Manduma and Natangundu. They have a very light skin colour, suggesting that they were amagamated into the Ndebele nation as Mzilikazi was fleeing from the wrath of Shaka.

    Child of the Sky - January 9, 2012
    17:17

  24. Child of the Sky

    While you have the gist of the origins of siLozi, I disagree that Lozi is not a tribe. We are a united ethnic group or tribe if you want to use that term. Most of the original Luyana factions do understand each other’s langauge variations. These Luyana factions were named after areas they settled in (MakwaMakoma – who settled where there were lots of palm trees; MaMbowe – who settled in the south; Manyengo – who settled where there were a lot of nyengo snakes; Makwandi – who ate fish due to living along the Liambai around Senanga)or specific historical incidents (Makwangwa – who failed to locate their leader Mange after a battle, Twakangwa Mange) etc etc. In Bulozi today one gets a sense that there are core Lozi groups (Kwangwa, Nyengo, Makoma, Imilangu, Mbowe, Kwandi etc)and associated Lozi groups (Mbunda, Mahumbe, etc) and friendly-to-Lozi groups (e.g. Nkoya). The non-core groups have languages that are entirely different from the Luyana derived groups but are integrated into the social systems (e.g. Kwangwas around Mongu live where streams originate – simbule – while Mbundas live where streams go – shango, maalo). The Mankoya are much further from the Barotse Plains (the core of Barotseland) and are therefore more autonomous.

    A parallel to Silozi and Loziness is like the differences in English dialects from London’s Eastend, Manchester, Liverpool, and BBC’s standard English. They are all English and not different tribes, even if they smirk at each other’s accent and even condescend towards one another!

    Chief Turd - January 9, 2012
    17:16

  25. Let us some serious dialogue over this so we can put it to rest once and for all. Tell all the parties the losses and gains of any decision made for or against. But by God revisit this and deal with it. It is part of who we are as Zambians. Let us not cover our heads in sand and pretend it is not a real historic and ever present dilemma. Lets do the right thing educate everyone about it in civility and genuine equality. I believe we can have a solution to this problem. A solution that would maintain the great nation of Zambia as one. One nation for all, equal and proud.

    Meddler - January 9, 2012
    16:42

  26. Child of the Sky

    Mahumbe are Kalanga not Ndebele though they come from the area around Matebeleland in Zimbabwe and Francistown in Botswana. They were allowed to settle in Barotseland because they were very good iron-smiths and could make a lot of stuff from smelting iron-ore like hoes, spears etc!. They are the ones who introduced the traditional iron smelting furnace called Mapukuto. When my dad was teaching at a school called Nangula in Luena constituency we used to visit some Mahumbe (Kalanga) Village called Machambuzi village because that is were my grandmother (Dad’s mum) came from.

    Mahumbe (Kalanga) are the Lozis with names like Musowani, Moleki, Musowafu, Mbulawa, Mbano, Kwati, Mbulai, Mulapesi, Lumbisani etc.

    Kamunu Qunu - January 9, 2012
    16:32

  27. If God wants W/Province to be independent,Definately it’ll separate amicably at his appoint hour without any blöodshed,If God knows that it is best for w/province to remain part of zambia&be called one zambia one nation,his will , will reign.BSAC,K.K.CHILUBA,R.B.ALL FAILED TO RESOLVE THIS ISSUE&SERIOUSLY DOUBT IF SATA WILL RESOLVE IT ONCE&FOR ALL(PLEASE LET GOD’S ANSWER PREVAIL)period!.

    situmbeko - January 9, 2012
    16:21

  28. VIVA BA!

    Mundia - January 9, 2012
    15:14

  29. Mike – you distort facts. Is it hate for the ruling family? The Lewanikas are educated because lewanika, though uneducated himself, read the changing times and realised the future lay in the hands of a man with pen in hand. He did not only give his children a head start. He gave everyone a head start where schools were available at the time. Thing is many people, including indunas, did not want thier children to go to school. Later lewanika resorted to sending kapasos into villages to round up children of school – going age. What else did you want the man to do? Where others were chasing missionaries from their lands, Lewanika gladly welcomed them. Let’s not blame the man for his intelligence. Barotseland was not overran by the Ndebele and the white colonists because of Lewanika’s foresight. We are able to insult in the Queen’s languuage today, largely because of his foresight. If anyone is to blame for uneducation of Barotseland, it is the grand conspiracy to load it on Barotseland.

    Child of the Sky - January 9, 2012
    15:09

  30. at my private school,children start singing the lozi national anthem then sing the zmbia national anthem

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    15:05

  31. ehhhhe ,kisuuu.child of the sky God will bless you.You are 100%correct.

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    15:03

  32. It will be a lie for any to claim that they belong to a combination of only two Lozi Language tribes. Take me, in my ancestry there is Mbowe, Ndebele, Nkoya, Subiya, Mbumi, Nyengo, Mbunda, Kololo and Luvale, with my mushiku on father’s sinde being “mwila pilu” or “mwila komu” that has a Ndebele origin. The majority of the people in Barotseland have a combination of Lui/ Kololo blood and Nkoya or Mbunda, as well as the other combinations. Silozi is a language that unites the people.

    Child of the Sky - January 9, 2012
    14:47

  33. Historians – set the record straight. Lozi is a language, a lingua – fraqua, not a tribe. From oral history, I understand that Lui had several dialects, depending on localities or certain cirmstances. Among them were Kwandi, Nyengo, Makoma, Kwanga (a kwangw’ a Mange), makwamshi, Ng’oya, and Mbowe. These settled among other earlier tribes (such as Mbumi, Liuwa, Mbukushu, Subiya) and were joined by others later. Among the later were Mbunda, Luvale and Kololo, Mahumbe (Ndebele or Matebele). These tribal groups, even before Lewanika, mingled and intermarried and weaved themselves a kingdom (a nation state)under Luyana Kings. Silozi as is spoken today is 98% Sotho with the rest of the tribal groupingss contributing, give or take, 2% of the vocabulary. Silozi vocabulary and written literature is a brain child of the missionaries.

    Child of the Sky - January 9, 2012
    14:35

  34. lunginyandambo you have left shifting police traing school in kitwe to kaoma because riots are more expected in wp than anywhere in zambia.Actually sata promsed a university at namushi,we just dont know why no givng one verstity to wp.Zambia currently has over 12 universities and it will be 15 when the 2 universities in northrn p are opened.our MPs go to parliament to sleep.Imagine if we had 5 mps like milupi,Mudia the late,Namugala catherine,chishimba kambwili.They would have stood up with their people`s call for development as a team ,even going on hunger stricke,wearing black as suggested by sata or if it becomes worse all mps of west to resign as MPs.I think we need more young people as MPs next time.

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    14:10

  35. The article is good. It does not speak of session but rather unity and this what we all want. BA64 created Zambia the way it is. What WP (Barotseland) needs is development. These require at $50million. A proper sale of ZAMTEL could have generated that kind of cash. The key immediate developmental issues are
    1. Mongu-Kalabo road
    2. Shesheke-Shangombo-Sikongo-Chavuma road
    3. Senanga – Sesheke road (currently be worked on)
    4. 1 Technical University in Mongu
    5. 1 more teacher training college – Senanga
    6. 1 more nursing school at Luampa
    7. 1 High Class Hotel in Mongu
    8. 1 International Airport at Mongu
    9. 1 Diploma level Agricultural/Fisheries Training College in Lukulu
    10. Revamping Mongu Trades Institute
    11. Modern Kuta (or High court) building in Mongu
    12. Two shopping malls in Mongu – Spar/Shoprite/Pick & Pay
    13. Revamping Zambezi Water transport – Lukulu to Senanga
    14. Improving the fisheries – Senanga, Sesheke, Kalabo, Mongu and Lukulu

    If these are addressed, this talk about BA64 will evaporate.

    Lunginyandambo - January 9, 2012
    13:43

  36. Stella,

    aka

    Mufaya Wamundila,

    You are a proper Lui. A mixture of Kwangwa–Mange’s Lui’s of the Forest plus Lui’s of the plains. Mufaya is a common name among the Makwangwa and Wamundila is a common name among the Lui along the Zambezi plains!

    And looking at the way you were questioning my earlier contribution; I am wondering why you chose to call yourself Lozi. I hope you see my point!

    Mpombo Bombarstic - January 9, 2012
    13:36

  37. blackbull

    my real name is MUFAYA WAMUNDILA, and am Lozi period. My dad’s granny was subiya

    Stella - January 9, 2012
    13:19

  38. Stella

    Calm down dear. Barotse (Malozi) is a Kololo term for ‘people of the plain’. This is how Sebituane’s Kololo described the people they conquered because their settlements were along or around river valleys or canals. The term Lozi is an encompassing name for all these people. The use of the term Lozi instead of Rotse was popularised by the Germans in South West Africa (Namibia). It was also very convienient for most ethnicities in barotseland who didnt use ‘R’ in most if not all their words! Members of the royal family are Alui or Luyis by tribe. It is an oxymoron to insist that there is a specific people separate from everyone else called Lozi. In the Caprivi Strip in Namibia for example people who speak Lozi belong to three major groups i.e Mafwe; Masubiya and MaTotela. Other groups are Mambukushu and Makwengo (Bushmen). This is the same mix you find in Sesheke and Northern Botswana. In Shangombo you will find mostly Mambukushu, Mashanjo, Makwamakoma. In Mongu you will find mostly Alui, MaMbunda, Makwangwa; Mahumbe (Kalangas) Manazwa( Sotho/Tswana). In Lukulu you will find Luvale, ALui, Luchazi, Lunda, Kwangwa. In Kaoma you will find Nkoyas, Mbundas, Alui, Luchazi, Luvales and Kwangwas. In Senanga you will find a mixture Alui, Kwangwa, Mbunda, Ndebele etc.

    Liato Biemba is a Mbunda from Kalabo. He grew up and went to school in Kaoma. That is why he can speak Nkoya!.

    Mpombo Bombarstic - January 9, 2012
    12:55

  39. GILBERT
    please translate the words of the barotse national anthem and incatation into English,the Poem seems to glorify God for giving the barotse people barotseland.

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    12:30

  40. You are now beeing fun. You have rightly pointed out that there was a gospel which swept out the country of “One Zambia One Nation” and that there was a referendum and in the referendum people voted for One Zambia One Nation so that superceeded the Cessession of Barotseland or the Autonomy of Barotseland. Its like saying Northen Rhodesia was to become a nation, also Barotseland was to become a nation, now instead of forming two nations the REFERENDUM saved Zambia to be Zambia. One Zambia, One Nation.

    sakalag - January 9, 2012
    12:25

  41. @2SWY GART
    Whatelse do you what KK to say.What he said in august 1964 is in the article,that was the foundation of one zambia one nation.look at the friendly face of the litunga Sir Mwanawina.He was like seeing the future ,isnt it!.thats why KK indirectly celebrated the deaths of these people.KK at one point called himself life president.Alot of things happened when KK imposed curfew on barotseland and arrested people of barotseland without any trial and succeeded in covering up.The names of people people who disappeared or died mysteriously is indeed very long.should the matter be in court their relatives will then come in open to put questions on KK.KK now you see what you created?If nkumbula was alive,he was going to speakout very fast.KK wanted to creat a situation where he appears like he was the only one who foght for independence.Was KK not in the same prison with munu sipalo in southern rhodesia?.

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    12:13

  42. YABA YOU ARE REALLY DREAMING
    SIKOTA WINA IS A WELL KNOW UNIP COWBOY AS HE WAS CALLED IN THE DAYS
    NOW HE TALKS LIKE A TRUE BRE HERO
    WHAT ELSE?? MX

    Wambo Lubinda - January 9, 2012
    12:07

  43. BAROTSELAND NATIONAL ANTHEM

    PRELUDE: THE ROYAL INCANTATION

    LILOKO LA LEWANIKA

    Imutakwandu Mulena Muhulu,
    Yolufilwe Ki Muhauheli,
    Halupunyuhile,
    Halu Iketile,
    Ki Lewanika!!

    BAROTSELAND NATIONAL ANTHEM

    MULENA BULUKA SICHABA SAHESU

    Mulena buluka sichaba sa hesu
    Ufelise lindwa ni maswenyeho (2x)

    Usibuluke, Uuusibuluke
    Usibuluke Mulena
    Usibuluke, sichaba sa hesu
    Sichaba sa Bulozi

    Mulena buluka Barotseland
    Uzuse lusika lwayona
    Utwa milapelo yaluna Ndate ulutuse
    Ulu sileleze luna bana bahao

    Taha moya, taha taha taha
    Taha moya, oo, ookenile

    Mulena buluka sichaba sa hesu
    Ufelise lindwa ni maswenyeho
    Usibuluke, Uuusibuluke
    Usibuluke Mulena
    Usibuluke, sichaba sa hesu
    Sichaba sa hesu.

    BULOZI (BAROTSELAND)

    Bulozi fasi la bondataa’luna
    Hala mafasi, lelinde kilona
    Kimolupepezwi, kimoluhulezi
    Mi lwa lilata

    Ba machaba niha bakalinyaza
    Kuluna kihae, mi la lateha
    Lina ni masimu, lina ni likomu
    Fasi la luna

    Niha lusa tokwa linto zeng’ata
    Zeluliutwa kuzeng’wi lichaba,
    Haluna ni nuka, mushitu, libala
    Kwaa lu likana

    Hahulu lifasi leo laluna
    Lise lina ni taba za Mulena
    Luse lu lapela, ni mikwa yafela
    Lu ta latana

    Jesu kale ufelise lindwa
    Felisa maka, lunya, maswenyeho
    Oho lifasi lela bondataa luna
    Lina ni kozo

    gilbert lubinda - January 9, 2012
    11:54

  44. stella which lozi?,tell us your so called lozi name and we will tell you her tribe out of the 38.everybody around has called himself lozi because they use lozi.subiya,kwengo,shanjo,kwamwenyi,njengo,kwamashi,kwangwa,luchazi,mbunda,luvale,nkoya,luyana,mbukushu etc,all these lozi speaking tribes are called lozi.most of these tribes can no longer even use anyword from these tribe.am nkoya and luchazi but proudly lozi from libonda and nalolo.i have married and diverced a bemba woman with 3 chidren,a nsenga woman with 2 childern now happily married to a tonga woman and still only with one son.the combination of names therefor in my family is unique and nice.My daughter musonda is a lozi,my son sakala is lozi,my daughter hibajene is lozi.I love all their mothers.Please respect us because we have married your sisters.Restoration of BA 64 will make life good for everyone because there will be hope in the hopeless hearts.restore BA 64.

    blackbull - January 9, 2012
    11:52

  45. President Sata assure every body that the BA64 is valid and there is nothing to fear. So it will be restored and the same principle will be applied to the other 9 provinces as govt is decentralised so that it will be a win-win-win-win situation. Thank you

    Man of Action - January 9, 2012
    11:45

  46. ‘Imbangala’
    U are fool , i just hope he mcs sends men in uniform to sort u . U are disturbing this fresh air we breathing. Pliz ur exellence send soldiers in mongu these chaps have gone too far

    Nkunda - January 9, 2012
    11:45

  47. Every civil war has its ‘story’ – the personalities, the social cleavages, the triggering events, the inflammatory discourse, the atrocities etc. What Zambian must be asking themselves is whether they are any different from other Africans living under civil wars. Like, are there structural conditions – social, political or economic – which make Congo, Sierra Leon etc more prone to civil war than Zambia? Might it be that the same inflammatory politician, playing on the same social cleavages, and with the same triggering events, might ‘cause’ war under one set of conditions and merely be an ugly irritant in another? The evens unfolding in Barotseland clearly shows we are equally prone to these conditions. We are basically at war brothers and sisters – mark my word.

    Mukolo - January 9, 2012
    11:39

  48. What surprises me most is the quietness of KK on this one. He knows the truth but he decides to keep quiet. Yes there is wisdon in keeping quiet but not on this case. Let KK say what transpired so that we can move on. Does he need a truth and recociliation commission?

    swygart - January 9, 2012
    11:37

  49. Iwe MPOMBO BOMBARSTIC you are very wrong!!!!!!!!!!!!!Check your primary education well. The LOZI tribe exists in WP, its just that they are the marjority tribe, whilst the others are the minority and would rather call themselves LOZI which they are not, and possibly can not even speak their languages, but LOZI. Nearly half or possibly more than half (over 35)of Zambia’s 72 tribes are in Western Province. These are LOZI, MBUNDA, NKOYA, TOTELA, SUBIYA, MBUKUSHU, NYENGO, KWANDI, MAKOMA, MBOWE, LUVALE, etc. I for one, Dad is Subiya and Mum is Lozi, I can speak Lozi but not Subiya except for a few words. For example Austin Liato is Nkoya, which he speaks very well, though people regard him as a Lozi.

    Stella - January 9, 2012
    11:30

  50. Rubbish article, the author sees issues through rose-tinted lenses. Not only did the BRE not withdraw from those areas he mentions, they were never there in the first place. The Lochner Concession was not signed with the British but with a company – the BSAC which eventually managed to wangle a charter from the Queen to make it look legit. Soon after independence, the new Zambian government challenged the mining companies on the legitimacy of the mining rights they were granted under the Lochner Concession and they failed to defend their position. The state of emergency KK declared had nothing to do with the BRE and everthing to do with Alice Lenshina in Northern Province. Please Mr. Godwin Kaluwe, desist from re-writing history, we’ve got access to history books as well.

    Ricky Bobby? - January 9, 2012
    11:27